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Brief Presentation

When people are immersed in a crowd or in a situation that provides group immersion and anonymity, self-awareness is reduced and we can speak of deindividuation. According to the SIDE Model, anonymity does not only lead to antinormative behavior, but can also change the salience of social identity. 
This report aims to report the last studies on deindividuation. After a recent analysis of Spear on the SIDE model and its cognitive and strategic consequences, we talk about the correlation with some other factor as: public self-awareness, group identification in a very large online group as Imgur and toxic disinhibition effect. 
Unfortunately, in the last years, research on deindividuation focused almost
 exclusively on
 cyberbullism and antinormative behavior. Outside of that, there's not a lot more to find. 

Sketch presentation



  • Lea, M., & Spears, R. (1991). Computer-mediated communication, de-individuation and group decision-making. International Journal of Man Machine Studies, 34, 283–301.

  • Lee, E. J. (2007). Deindividuation effects on group polarization in computer‐mediated communication: The role of group identification, public‐self‐awareness, and perceived argument quality. Journal of communication, 57(2).

  • Mikal, J. P., Rice, R. E., Kent, R. G., & Uchino, B. N. (2016). 100 million strong: A case study of group identification and deindividuation on Imgur. com. new media & society, 18(11), 2485-2506.

  • Spears, R. (2017). Social identity model of deindividuation effects. The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects.

  • Suler, J. (2004), “The online disinhibition effect”, Cyberpsychology & Behavior, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 321-326.

  • Uhrich, S., & Tombs, A. (2014). Retail customers' self-awareness: The deindividuation effects of others. Journal of Business Research, 67(7), 1439-1446.

  • Wu, S., Lin, T. C., & Shih, J. F. (2017). Examining the antecedents of online disinhibition. Information Technology & People, 30(1), 189-209.

  • Zimbardo, P. G. (1969). The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order vs. Deindividuation, impulse and chaos. In W. J. Arnold & D. Levine (Eds.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 17, pp. 237–307). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 385-403.